Loop start b. Ground start c. CAS d. CCS 2. Which of the following issues is prevented by using ground start signaling? Echo b. Glare c. Reflexive transmissions d. Which of the following signaling types represents supervisory signaling? Off-hook signal b. Dial tone c. DTMF d. Congestion 4. What are two disadvantages of using analog connectivity? Conversion complexity b. Signal quality c. Limited calls per line d. Lack of common voice services 5.
Which of the following systems allows you to send multiple voice calls over a single digital circuit by dividing the calls into specific time slots? MUX b. DE-MUX c. TDM d. TCP 6. When using T1 CAS signaling, which bits are used to transmit signaling information within each voice channel? First bit of each frame b. Last bit of each frame c. Second and third bits of every third frame d. Eighth bit of every sixth frame 7. How large is each T1 frame sent over a digital CAS connection? Choose two. Time slot 1 b.
Time slot 16 c. Time slot 17 d. Time slot 23 e. ITU-T b.
ITU d. T What amount of bandwidth is consumed by the audio payload of G. Which of the following are high-complexity codecs? The phonograph could then play back this sound by moving the needle at a steady speed back over the indentions made in the tinfoil. An analog signal uses a property of the device that captures the audio signal to convey audio information.
When you speak into an analog phone, the sounds that come out of your mouth are converted into electricity. The volume and pitch that you use when speaking result in different variations of electrical current. Electrical voltage, frequency, current, and charge are all used in some combination to con- vey the properties of your voice. Figure illustrates perhaps a more familiar view of using electrical signals to capture the properties of voice.
Although this may be true, most PBX systems offer That is a high standard to meet, but current VoIP technology, when properly implemented, can meet and even exceed that standard. Key systems are geared around small business environments typically fewer than 50 users. For example, you might see a key system installed in a small insurance office where users all have four lines assigned to their phone.
If Joe were to use line 1, the line would appear busy for all users at the insurance office. Note Although key systems often have a shared-line feature set, many key systems have numerous features that allow them to operate just like a PBX system but with fewer ports. Home users and small offices can connect using analog ports. Each two-wire analog connection has the capability to support a single call.
For home users, a single, analog connection to the PSTN may be suf- ficient. For small offices, the number of incoming analog connections directly relates to the office size and average call volume. As businesses grow, you can consolidate the multiple ana- log connections into one or more digital T1 or E1 connections, as shown in Figure The PSTN is itself a network of networks, similar to the Internet, which connects the phone switching equipment at the COs of multiple telephony providers together into a massive worldwide network.
The voice signaling protocol used around the world is SS7 Signaling System 7. SS7 is an out-of-band CCS-style signaling method used to communicate call setup, routing, billing, and informational messages between telephone company COs around the world. When a user makes a call, the first CO to receive the call performs an SS7 lookup to locate the number. When the destination is found, SS7 is responsible for routing the call through the voice network to the destination and providing all informational signaling such as ring back to the calling device.
Note SS7 is primarily a telephony service provider technology. You do not typically directly interface with the SS7 protocol from a telephony customer perspective. The Emergence of VoIP Everything discussed thus far deals with taking spoken voice as analog signal and convert- ing it into binary 1s and 0s digital data.
Instead of placing those old school 1s and 0s into a DS0 channel, we now load them into a data packet with IP addressing information in the header. You can then take that VoIP packet and send it across the data network at your office. Sending a packet is just routine for data networks. The real difference, and our biggest concern, is ensuring that the packet gets to its destination intact and rapidly quality of service [QoS] , choosing the proper coding and decoding codec methods, making sure that the VoIP packet is not snooped on encryption , and a plethora of other concerns.
These topics will unfold in due course; for now, take a moment to simply enjoy walking into the world of VoIP. VoIP: Why It Is a Big Deal for Businesses One of the biggest benefits of VoIP to businesses is saving cabling and related infrastructure costs, due to the elimination of a completely separate voice cabling implementation. That can be a big deal, but as you dig deeper into the ramifications of running voice over data networks, you begin to uncover many business benefits that were previously untapped.
This cost sav- 1 ings is only a factor realized in new construction or renovation of offices. This also provides centralized control of all voice devices attached to the network and a consistent dial plan. For example, all users could dial each other using four-digit extensions, even though many of them may be scattered around the world.
With VoIP phone systems, this cost is greatly reduced. In addition, IP phones are becoming increasingly plug-and-play within the local offices, allowing moves with little to no reconfiguration of the voice net- work. When combined with a VPN configuration, users can even take an IP phone home with them and retain their work extension.
Users can now plug a headset into their laptop or desktop computer or tablet and allow it to act as their phone. Softphones are becoming increas- ingly more integrated with other applications such as email contact lists, instant messag- ing, presence, video telephony, and rich-media collaboration tools such as WebEx. This allows users to get all messages in one place and easily reply to, forward, or archive messages. For example, calls flowing into a call center can automatically pull up customer records based on caller ID information or trigger a video stream for one or more of the callers.
Although this capability is still evolving, it will allow businesses to choose the best equipment for their network, regardless of the manufacturer. Harry Nyquist laid the mathematical foundations for the technology used to this day to convert analog signals flowing waveforms into digital format 1s and 0s. It is important to understand this process because it will inform your understanding of VoIP audio sample sizes, DSP resources, and codecs.
The process of converting analog to digital consists of three sometimes four steps: sampling, quantization, and encoding. The fourth is compression, which is not always applied. The origin of the digital conversion process which fed many of the developments discussed earlier takes us back to the s. For organizations that required many voice circuits, this meant running large bundles of cable. After much research, Nyquist found that he could accurately reconstruct audio streams by taking samples of the analog signal twice as many times per sec- ond as the numerical value of the highest frequency used in the audio.
Here is how it breaks down: Audio frequencies vary based on the volume, pitch, and so on that comprise the sound. The telephone channel frequency range — Hz gives you enough sound quality to identify the remote caller and sense their mood. The telephone channel frequency range does not send the full spectrum of human voice inflection, and so lowers the actual quality of the audio. For example, when you listen to talk radio, you can always tell the difference in quality between the radio host and the telephone caller, but you can still under- stand the caller because your brain is very good at filling in the gaps.
Nyquist proved that you can accurately reproduce an audio signal by sampling at twice the highest frequency. A sample is a numeric value of the analog waveform, measured at regular intervals. More specifically, in the voice realm, a sample is a numeric value that is encoded by a single byte 8 bits of information. As Figure illustrates, during the process of sampling, the sampling device puts an analog waveform against a Y-axis lined with numeric values.
This process is inherently inaccurate because an analog waveform is continuous and infinitely precise. The process itself creates jumps or steps in the measurements—the brief periods between samples. If the samples are not taken frequently enough, the steps are large, the analog waveform is not represented accurately, and the quality suffers badly. It is exactly the same as the difference between a low-resolution image and a high-resolution image; low-res imag- es are kind of blurry and not great, and hi-res images are crisp, sharp, and detailed.
Dealing with the transition between the steps in the digital measurement is known as quanti- zation. We are limited to a range of whole numbers on the measurement scale no fractions or decimal places are possible because 1 byte of information can represent only values 0— When the codec encounters a measurement that is not a whole number on that scale, the measurement is artificially adjusted one way or the other so that it does fall exactly on the whole number.
This introduces a small amount of inaccuracy into the digitization of analog audio; increasing the number of samples per second reduces the inaccuracy, but it can never be eliminated because the curve of the analog waveform is infinite. This, incidentally, is why some people say that vinyl records sound better than dig- ital tracks. An iPod is much more convenient and easier to carry. The third step is encoding, or applying a binary value to the quantized measurement. Notice in Figure that the positive and negative values are not evenly spaced. This is by design.
As shown in Figure , the first bit indicates positive or negative, and the remaining seven bits represent the actual numeric value of 0— Moving into the realm of VoIP, the network now requires the router to convert loads of incoming voice calls into digitized, packetized transmissions and, of course, the reverse of that process as well.
This task would easily overwhelm the resources you have on the router. This is where DSPs come into play. DSPs offload the processing responsibility for voice-related tasks from the processor of the router. Specifically, a DSP is a chip that performs all the sampling, encoding, and compression func- tions on audio and, in current hardware, video, too coming into your router.
If you were to equip your router with voice interface cards VICs , allowing it to connect to the PSTN or analog devices, but did not equip your router with DSPs, the interfaces would be worth- less. The interfaces would be able to actively connect to the legacy voice networks, but would not have the power to convert any voice into packetized form. DSPs typically come as chips to install in your Cisco router, as shown in Figure Above all, it is important for you to add the necessary number of DSPs to your router to support the number of active voice and video calls, conferences, and transcoding converting one codec to another sessions you plan to support.
Tip Cisco provides a DSP calculator that provides the number of DSP chips you need to purchase based on the voice network you are supporting. Keep in mind that a growing network will always require more DSP resources. PVDM3s are more powerful, more efficient, have the addition- al capability of processing video as well as audio, and even include power-saving features when idle.
Some codecs consume more DSP resources to pass through the audio conversion process than other codecs consume. Table shows the codecs considered medium and high complexity. Having two transport layer protocols is odd, but that is exactly what is happening here. UDP provides the services it always does: port numbers that is, session multiplexing and header checksums which ensure that the header information does not become corrupted.
RTP adds time stamps and sequence numbers to the header informa- tion. This allows the remote device to put the packets back in order when it receives them at the remote end function of the sequence number and use a buffer to remove jitter slight delays between the packets to give a smooth audio playout function of the time stamp. Figure represents the RTP header information contained in a packet. This section describes the CUC application and its capabilities.
This chapter resolves that issue at least, as it relates to the core Cisco Unified prod- ucts. What are all these servers and software? What do they do? How can they benefit my company? These are all questions we will unpack as you read this chapter. Which of the following products would support integrated FXS ports? Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express b.
Cisco Unified Communications Manager c. Cisco Unified Presence d. Which of the following signaling methods can CME use for endpoint control? SCCP b. SIP c.
MGCP 3. Two users are talking on Cisco IP phones to each other in the same office. Midway through the call, an administrator reboots the CME router. What happens to the cur- rent call? The call is immediately disconnected. The call remains active; however, no supplemental features such as hold, trans- fer, and so on are available for the remainder of the call. Digital signal processor c. SIP codec conversion d. Codec IOS enablement 5. Redundancy c. PSTN gateway functionality d. VMware deployment on Unified Computing System platform 6.
Administrative access to the CUCM database becomes read-only; user-facing fea- tures are writable to the Subscriber. When run on a single server, Cisco Unity Connection can support up to 20, mailboxes. Which of the following governs the number of concurrent calls supported by a Cisco Unity Connection server? Trunk ports b. Voicemail ports c. SIP proxy server d.
Cisco Unified Presence supplies which of the following capabilities? Cisco Unified Personal Communicator b. Enterprise IM Solution c. Visible status indicators of IP Phone users d. The technology crosses boundaries and brings together all communication into one, seamless framework. The interaction we experience today was only seen in the science-fiction movies of decades ago: rooms full of corporate strategists interacting with a partner company half-way around the world through huge flat-panel monitors surrounding the conference desk.
No longer fiction—although I am still waiting for my flying car. The Cisco collaboration strategy encompasses all electronic communication types: voice, video, and data. For example, the Cisco Unified Contact Center platforms allows you to add call-center capabilities to your net- work, such as skills-based call routing, call queuing, live monitoring of conversations, and so on. Cisco WebEx adds enhanced conference-call capabilities, document collaboration, and training platforms.
Dedicated video collaboration systems such as TelePresence offer distributed HD video and multi-channel audio for a virtual collaboration experience that is startlingly true to life. The list goes on, but the CICD exam concentrates on these four core components of the system. My goal in the rest of this book is to give you the information you need to become familiar with each of the core Unified Communications platforms.
As you go through this book, you might be astonished and per- haps overwhelmed at just how much technology you learn, and that experience will continue throughout your career as you see just how much further the technology goes. On top of all that, the Cisco router you have been using for years might also run your IP telephony network. Depending on the platform you use, CME can scale to support up to IP phones, which makes it a good solution for small and even some midsize businesses.
Table shows the current ISR G2 platforms available and the maximum number of phones supported on each platform. It handles the signaling to the endpoints, call routing, call termination, and call features. For example, you could use the Cisco Unified CallConnector to make one-click calls directly from your Microsoft Outlook contact list. Remember this is a special-case scenario; for your exam, think of the standard cluster sizing of 40, phones as the maximum.
In addition to using Intercluster trunk links to call outside of your own cluster, CUCM can also connect to voice gateways such as a Cisco router , which can connect to various other voice networks such as the PSTN or legacy PBX systems. CUCM has the capability to be its own directory server to hold user accounts, or it can integrate into an existing corporate Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP directory structure such as Microsoft Active Directory and pull user account information from there.
The Publisher replicates this data as a read-only database to all the Subscriber servers in the cluster. A more detailed description of the roles of Publisher and Subscriber follows. Then, whenever something of interest happens such as a phone registering, a call initiation, a call disconnect, and so on , the servers inform each other of the event.
The more voicemail port licenses you purchase for the Unity Connection server, the more concurrent communi- cation it supports. You should consider calls to the auto-attendant, checking voicemail, leav- ing voicemail, message notification, and message waiting indicator MWI communication in calculating the number of required voicemail ports.
Many organizations use a centralized Unity Connection voicemail cluster to support several CME- based remote offices. With applications such as Google Hangouts, Skype, Windows Live Messenger, and Facebook Messenger, you are able to see the status of a buddy available, busy, offline, and so on and decide whether now is a good time to chat with them. People love using these chat tools so much that they naturally want to use them for work, too.
However, in business environments, the use of these apps is often restricted because of security concerns or regulatory compliance requirements. It is usually a smart idea to give people the tools they want and need to do the job, instead of trying to lock things down harder and aggravate the users. The trick is to find a way to meet the needs of the users while still ensuring that the security and legal obligations of the company are protected. This is where IMP comes in: The server software, in conjunction with a variety of IM clients the one we are most interested in is of course Cisco Jabber , gives people secure IM with full presence status indication allowing you to see the status of users are they on the phone, off the phone, not available, in a meeting and so on before you pick up the phone to dial or IM chat them.
XCP can allow features such as peer-to-peer file shar- ing, application sharing, video-conference systems, and so on. XCP integrates with nearly any infrastructure, such as directory services, databases, and web portals. This single software application brings together several frequently used services in a single loca- tion: soft phone, presence, instant messaging, visual voicemail, employee directory, com- munication history, video, and web conferencing. Figure Cisco Jabber At its core, Jabber serves as an IM client, supporting peer-to-peer chat, multiuser chat, and persistent chat.
Jabber uses LDAP for user searches and to add contacts. Because Jabber connects to the IMP server which in turn connects to the CUCM, you are able to see not only the status of a user as it relates to IM conversations, but you can also see the status of their phone off hook, on hook, and so on. Jabber can act as a full softphone, allowing audio and video calls from other audio and video-capable devices IP phones, softphones, and so on in the network, or it can control your desk phone remotely instead.
Jabber also gives you visual voicemail a feature that makes checking and retrieving voicemail very easy. Some of those plat- forms do not support the full feature set yet, but that does not detract from its astonishing capabilities and usefulness. Understanding Video Communication Server and TelePresence Management Suite Video calling is an increasingly important component of business communications.
The key distinction here is that the endpoints involved with the video call are reg- istered to the CM cluster. TelePresence deserves its own category, not only because of the specialized equipment involved, but also because it can be quite independent of the CM cluster in managing its own call control.
These calls must traverse the cor- porate firewall in order to connect to internal endpoints on the corporate LAN. But if we are to include all the categories of video calling listed earlier, we need to address the more com- plicated scenario: How we can incorporate video endpoints that we do not own and do not control—the ones that belong to our partners and customers? How do we allow a customer or a business partner to use their video endpoint to call one of ours—and how do we do that on demand and still make it simple and secure?
This is a solution that allows the caller to signal our CM cluster that they want to set up a video call to one of our CM-registered internal endpoints. This setup allows outside-to-inside on demand call setup while preserving firewall integrity and security. This application which has multiple caller platform capa- bilities allows callers to click a website link and establish a video call on demand, even if they do not have a video endpoint or soft client installed. This scenario is ideal for cus- tomer support environments.
TelePresence Management Suite Cisco TelePresence is a powerful, complex, and valuable system—and if we are being hon- est, it can be pretty expensive. If you have a TelePresence capability, one of the challenges you must quickly deal with is the fact that pretty soon everybody wants to use it for meetings and collaboration. Table lists and describes these key topics and identifies the page numbers on which each is found.
This section discusses the different options for PoE and the selection criteria for each. This section discusses the concepts and con- figuration behind VLANs. Understanding this process is important to troubleshooting issues with the IP telephony system. This section describes the processes and protocols that make it happen. This section describes how QoS configura- tions on network routers and switches provide the guarantees of bandwidth and delay that voice traffic needs to sound good.
On each desk sits a Cisco IP phone with a full-color display, two line instances, and a built-in camera. The employees are busy taking phone calls; Jaime is checking her visual voicemail while Jaden is booking a TelePresence room and Jaine is on a video call with Tom. How did we get here? How do you take a newly constructed building and transform it into a functional unified communications system?
By the time you are done with this chapter, you will have all the concep- tual knowledge you need to have in place before you can move into the installation and configuration of the Cisco VoIP system. Which of the following is an industry standard used for powering devices using an Ethernet cable? Cisco inline power b. Which of the following are valid methods for powering a Cisco IP phone? Select all that apply. Power brick b. Crossover coupler c. PoE d. Using pins 1, 2, 3, and 4 3. Which of the following terms are associated with a VLAN? IP subnet b. Port security c.
Broadcast domain d. Collision domain 4. Which of the following trunking protocols would be used to connect a Cisco switch to a non-Cisco switch device? VTP b. ISL 5. Multi-VLAN access b. Trunk c. Dynamic d. Dynamic desired 6. How does a device attached to a Cisco IP phone send data to the switch? As tagged using the voice VLAN b. As untagged c. As tagged using the data VLAN d. As tagged using the CoS value 7. Which of the following commands should you use to configure a port for a voice VLAN 12? Which of the following commands would you use to forward DHCP requests from an interface connected to the Through CDP b.
Using Using the proprietary ISL protocol d. Option 10 b. Option 15 c. Option d. Option Which of the following NTP stratum numbers would be considered the best? Stratum 0 b. Stratum 1 c. Stratum 2 d. Stratum 3 Which of the following protocols could be used for Cisco IP phone registration? DHCP d. Which of the following is not an area you can use QoS to manage?
Packet jitter b. Variable delay c. Fixed delay d. There is a wide variety of devices that can attach to a PoE connection and receive all the power they need to operate. In addition to Cisco IP phones, other common PoE devices include wireless access points, paging speakers, and video surveillance equipment. Powering devices through an Ethernet cable offers many advantages over using a local power supply. First, you have a centralized point of power distribution. Many users expect the phone system to continue to work even if the power is out in the company offices. PoE also enables you to power devices that are not conveniently located next to a power outlet.
For exam- ple, it is a common practice to mount wireless access points in the ceiling, where power is not easily accessible. Third-party switches from vendors other than Cisco will deliver PoE and power Cisco IP phones, but they may not support Cisco proprietary configurations and capabilities that make management, quality of service QoS , and traffic control easier and more powerful. PoE became an official standard However, the IP telephony industry was rapidly evolving before this.
To power the IP phones without an official PoE standard, some proprietary methods were created, one such method being Cisco inline power. In addition, some proprietary implementations of PoE have reached 51W of power by using all four pairs of wire in the Ethernet cable. To upgrade all switches to support PoE would be a significant expense. These organizations may choose to install intermediary devices, such as a patch panel, that are able to inject PoE on the line. The physical layout for this design is demonstrated in Figure By using the powered patch panel, you still gain the advantage of centralized power and backup without requiring switch upgrades.
Be sure that your switch supports these features before you consider a power patch panel solution. Inline PoE injectors provide a low-cost PoE solution for single devices one device per injec- tor. This syntax is a newer form of configuration for IP phone connections. This was less secure because hackers could remove the IP phone from the switch port and attach their own device another managed switch or PC and perform a VLAN-hopping attack. By understanding the IP phone boot process, you can more fully understand how the Cisco IP phone operates which aids significantly in troubleshooting Cisco IP phone issues.
Here is the Cisco IP phone boot process, start to finish: 1. The Cisco IP phone connects to an Ethernet switch port. Included in the configuration file is a list of valid call processing agents such as Cisco Unified Communications Manager or Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express. The Cisco IP phone attempts to contact the first call processing server the primary server listed in its configuration file to register.
If this fails, the IP phone moves to the next server in the configuration file. This process continues until the IP phone reg- isters successfully or the list of call processing agents is exhausted. Using a router as a DHCP server is a common practice in smaller networks. Once you move into larger organizations, DHCP services are typically centralized onto server platforms.
Using a router as a DHCP server is simple and stable and makes sense if there is already a router in place that could perform DHCP in addition to its routine jobs. That said, most larger organizations use a Windows server or some other centralized device for DHCP services.
Cisco routers take the opposite approach: You first specify a range of addresses that you do not want to hand out to clients using the ip dhcp excluded-address syntax from global configuration mode. Configuring the excluded addresses before you configure the DHCP pools ensures that the Cisco router does not accidentally hand out IP addresses before you have a chance to exclude them from the range. In Example , this is Likewise, all the NTP-enabled devices on your network will have the exact same time. These advantages make NTP the preferred clock-setting method. The accuracy of the clock on your device depends on the stratum number of the NTP server.
A stratum 1 time server is one that has a GPS clock or atomic clock directly attached. The device that receives its time from this server via NTP is considered a stratum 2 device. The device that receives its time from this stratum 2 device via NTP is considered a stratum 3 device, and so on. There are many publicly accessible stratum 2 and 3 and even some stratum 1 devices on the Internet.
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If this is the only command you enter, your clock on your device will set itself to the universal time coordinated UTC time zone. The previous syntax example set the time zone for Arizona to —7 hours from UTC. Now that we configured the router to synchronize with an NTP server, we can verify the NTP associations and the current time and date using the commands shown in Example The asterisk indicates that your Cisco device has synchronized with this server.
After you configure the Cisco router to synchronize with an NTP server, you can configure it to provide date and time information to a CUCM server, which can then provide that date and time information to the Cisco IP phones in your network. For example, as soon as a user picks up the handset of the phone, it sends a SCCP or SIP message to the call processing server indicating an off-hook condi- tion.
Quality of Service Quality of service QoS is a topic that is referenced in nearly every chapter of this book. For a VoIP network to operate successfully, the voice traffic must have priority over the data traffic as it traverses its way from one end of the network to the other. The Cisco defi- nition of QoS is as follows: Quality of service is the ability of the network to provide better or special service to a set of users and applications at the expense of other users and applications.
The voice traffic needs this not so much because of bandwidth require- ments VoIP uses very little bandwidth compared to most data applications , but rather delay requirements. Unlike data, the time it takes a voice packet to get from one end of the network to the other is critical. If a data packet crossing the network experiences delay, a file transfer might take a couple more seconds to complete or a web page might take a half second longer to load.
However, if voice traffic crossing the network experiences delay, conversations begin to overlap a person begins speaking at the same time as another person ; the conversation breaks up; and, in some extreme cases, the voice call drops. The key here is that we hear the network prob- lems in real-time as it messes up our phone conversation; people notice, and it is unaccept- able because we are used to speech sounding like speech. To combat these issues, you need to ensure not only that there is bandwidth available for VoIP traffic, but that the VoIP traffic gets the first bandwidth available.
This means if a bot- tleneck occurs in the network and a router has to queue traffic before it is sent, the router will move the waiting voice traffic ahead of the data traffic and give transmit priority to the voice packets. Accomplishing this is the job of QoS. QoS is not a tool in itself, but rather, a category of many tools aimed at giving you complete control over the traffic crossing your network. There might be times when you just use a single QoS tool aimed at decreasing the delay of traffic.
Other times, you might employ multiple QoS tools to control delay, reserve bandwidth, and compress data that is heading over the WAN. Sample screen configurations follow, with user input in bold text. DTE is the default value for the interface:. The customer sets the called X. In this example, the called X. You can specify the TCP port. In this example, the TCP port is set to DTE is the default X.
The CUD field must be set to 0xC1. The following procedure provides helpful hints on debugging problems with EB and RC port connectivity:. The show controllers EXEC command will display the type of cable connected to the router. In the example, the cable is connected to slot 1, port 2 on the router.
A clock rate of baud can also be verified. In the sample output, the physical interface is up but the line protocol is down. Notice at the bottom of the output shown, the physical leads are up. The physical cable connection is good, but Layer 2 is not up. You know that Layer 2 is down because line protocol is down. If you are logged in to the router remotely, you will need to use the terminal monitor EXEC command to display the output on your terminal. The following output shows SABMs being sent out of the router. The report shows receiver ready packets going in I and out O of the serial interface, indicating that the protocol is up at Layer There are a number of options for X.
In the following output, the LAPB layer is up. The call is destined for port The report indicates that the LAPB layer is up. Next, place an X. The TCP session is accepted and an X. Notice that the router is calling the X. To make it correct, lower the highest two-way channel to 3 for the EB link, or 4 for the RC link, depending on the port:. Monitor the outgoing call to the switch again.
You can see the call go out on logical channel 4. The call is cleared by the switch. You can also can see the Clear Request sent to the switch. The router confirms the clear. Notice the I on the debug output. The I stands for incoming packet to the interface. Notice that the call is now placed on LCI 4. The CUD field was set to decimal. The following report indicates this fix worked. The call was not rejected due to the CUD.
The following debug report shows all four channels connected on the RC port. LCI 4 will be brought up first. The router places the call on the highest available channel first. Use the no form of a debug command to disable the command. The list of TCP sessions that can be debugged is shown in the following example.
Enter the debug ip tcp transactions command to start the test:. The router in the central office is starting an X. The end of the data record is marked by the M-bit on the X. This scenario was tested with the default X. To configure the Cisco X. This address is the calling address for the inbound SVC to the switch:. The command will permit or deny flow control parameter negotiation of the packet or window size:. Use of the Cisco X. TDMS software is an OSS solution for network traffic monitoring, data collection, forecasting, and performance management.
Originally developed by Lucent Technologies, TDMS collects, processes, analyzes, and generates reports of traffic performance. Traffic data collection applications are used for monitoring and troubleshooting the voice portion of the network. The traffic data is collected from the EDAS port on the telephone switch.
The EDAS port on the switch is a serial connection. This support eliminates the need for a Datakit node to serve as a front end for the application. The procedure in this section sets the low two-way channel to 4 for the router configuration. The packet size is changed from a default of to The router is acknowledging every packet with the x25 threshold command. The TCP ports are mapped as follows:. The router supplies the interface clocking.
The router clock rate is baud. To configure Cisco X. This command instructs the router to send packets when the router is not busy sending other packets, even if the number of input packets has not reached the input window size count. The TCP ports were chosen arbitrarily. The report indicates that the physical interface is up and all of the control leads are up. The line protocol is up, which means that LAPB is up. In this configuration example, the host will connect to TCP port The following reports show the X.
The report should indicate that PVC 3 is up. Enable X. You should see a long report similar to the following example:. Note The service provider must be using release 4. Fields 59 and 61 are the input and output buffer sizes. This section describes important fields in the Lucent cpblx form and lists values that can be entered in the fields. Option block name. This is a key field. Legal values: alphanumeric characters. Multiple values may be considered equivalent in the database. Any legal value may be entered, but the value may not be shown in the Recent Change and Verify displays.
Maximum time to wait for level 2 protocol acknowledgment. Values entered represent tenths of a second. Maximum time to allow the data link to be idle. Legal values: 0 data terminal equipment ; 1 data circuit-terminating equipment. Legal values: active active device of duplex pair ; standby standby device of duplex pair ; null. This action will result in no packets being retransmitted.
Any other value will result in the default action of retransmitting a packet up to two times by CPH. Legal values: allow allow dialup connection ; condalw if duplex and primary not active; allow dialup connection ; inhibit inhibit dialup connection. Note When the size of the outscrsiz buffer is increased, the growth and degrowth procedures for the SDL must be followed. Failure to follow the procedures will cause the IOPs to initialize.
Note When the size of the inscrsiz buffer is increased, the growth and degrowth procedures for the SDL must be followed. The Cisco Technical Support website contains thousands of pages of searchable technical content, including links to products, technologies, solutions, technical tips, and tools. Registered Cisco. Version Number.
Router configure terminal. Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router config-if shutdown. Router config-if encapsulation x25 dce. Router config-if x25 wout 7. Router config-if x25 ips Router config-if x25 ops Router config-if no x25 linkrestart. Router config-if x25 pvc 1 tunnel Router config-if clockrate Router config-if no shutdown.
Router config-if x25 pvc 1 xot The input and output window size is changed from the default of 2 to 7. The maximum input and output packet size is changed from the default of to The system default is to force X. The no x25 linkrestart command disables this function. The clock rate is set to baud, to supply clock signaling to the DTE device. Router-B configure terminal. Router-B config-if x25 address Router-B config-if encapsulation x25 dce. Router-B config-if clockrate Router-B config-if x25 pvc 1 svc packetsize windowsize 3 3. Router-B config-if no ignore-hw local-loopback. Router-B config-if no ip mroute-cache.
Router-B config-if no ip address. Router-B config x25 route xot Started , last input , output Router-A config interface Loopback0. Router-A config-if ip address Router-A config-if encapsulation x25 dce. Router-A config-if x25 threshold 1. Router-A config-if x25 pvc 1 rbp local port Router-A config-if clockrate Router-A copy running-config startup-config. Router-A configure terminal. Router-A config x25 routing. Router-A config-if shutdown. Router-A config-if x25 loc 4. Router-A config-if x25 map rbp local port q-bit. Router-A config-if no shutdown.
Caution Enabling debugging can severely degrade performance of the router. Cisco strongly recommends that debugging be done in a lab and not in a production network. Feb 7 EQ 10 Record 10 EQ Captured on Router config hostname Router Router config stun peer-name Router config stun protocol-group basic. Router config-if ip address Router config-if no ip address. Router config-if encapsulation stun.
Router config-if stun group Router config-if stun route all tcp Router config hostname RouterR1. RouterR1 config stun peer-name RouterR1 config stun protocol-group basic. RouterR1 config-if ip address RouterR1 config-if half-duplex. RouterR1 config-if no ip address. RouterR1 config-if encapsulation stun. RouterR1 config-if clockrate RouterR1 config-if stun group RouterR1 config-if stun route all tcp Last input , output , output hang never. Last clearing of "show interface" counters Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles. Router config x25 routing.
Router config-if no ip mroute-cache. Router config-if x25 version Router config-if x25 htc Router config-if x25 wout 4. Router config-if x25 route source substitute-dest substitute-source xot Gateway name: j1g gateway type: standard. Match Substitute Route to. Sub-dest Sub-source XOT between Router config-if x25 address Router config-if x25 t10 Router config-if x25 t12 Router config-if x25 threshold 1. Router config-if x25 pvc 1 svc packetsize windowsize 4 4.
Router config-if x25 pvc 2 svc packetsize windowsize 4 4.
Networkers '99 Session Presentations
Router config-if x25 pvc 3 svc packetsize windowsize 4 4. Router config-if x25 pvc 7 svc packetsize windowsize 4 4. Router config-if lapb t1 Router config-if lapb t2 Router config-if lapb t4 Router config-if translate tcp Channels: Incoming-only none, Two-way , Outgoing-only none. Description Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps. Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.
To remove this explicitly specified reference bandwidth, use the no form of this command. This command is disabled. Reference bandwidth for a logical interface is derived from the main interface or the main interface QoS policy. Support for logical interfaces is expanded to include the main interface, subinterface, and Frame Relay. The bandwidthqos-referencecommand is used only as reference for calculating rates of QoS percent configurations on a logical interface.
This command does not actually allocate a specified amount of bandwidth for a logical interface. Compatibility with the shape percent and the police percent Commands The bandwidthqos-referencecommand is compatible with and related to the shape percent and police percent commands. The shape percent command allows you to configure average-rate or peakrate traffic shaping on the basis of a percentage of bandwidth available on an interface. The police percent. The bandwidthqos-referencecommand interacts with theshape percent and police percent commands in the following ways: If the bandwidthqos-referencecommand is used to specify the bandwidth, theshape percent command and the police percent commands will use this specified amount to calculate the respective bandwidth percentages.
If the bandwidthqos-referencecommand is not used to specify the bandwidth, the shape percent command and the police percent commands will use the amount of bandwidth available on the interface to calculate the respective bandwidth percentages. Compatibility with bandwidth interface Command The bandwidth interface command allows you to set the inherited and received bandwidth values for an interface.
If both the bandwidth interface and bandwidthqos-referencecommands are enabled on any interface, the value specified by the bandwidthqos-referencecommand is used as the reference for calculating rates for QoS percent configurations on that particular physical or logical interface.
The value specified by the bandwidth interface command is disregarded. The value for the shapeaveragepercent command is set to Description Sets the inherited and received bandwidth values for an interface. Configures traffic policing on the basis of a percentage of bandwidth available on an interface. Specifies average-rate or peak-rate traffic shaping on the basis of a percentage of bandwidth available on an interface. To remove the bandwidth-remaining ratio, use the no form of this command.
Relative weight of this subinterface or class queue with respect to other subinterfaces or class queues. At the subinterface level, the default value is platform dependent. At the class queue level, the default is 1. Cisco Series Router, Cisco Series Router, and Cisco Series Router ratio Relative weight of this subinterface or class queue with respect to other subinterfaces or class queues. Note For the Cisco series router and Note For the Cisco series router, valid. Optional Specifies the encapsulation type at the subscriber line.
Encapsulation type varies according to subscriber line. Optional Specifies the offset size, in bytes, that the router uses when calculating the ATM overhead. Cisco ASR Series Routers ratio Relative weight of this subinterface or class queue with respect to other subinterfaces or class queues. At the subinterface level and class-queue level, the default is 1. When you use default bandwidth-remaining ratios at the subinterface level, the Cisco series router distinguishes between interface types.
For ATM subinterfaces, the router computes the default bandwidth-remaining ratio based on the subinterface speed. When you use default bandwidth-remaining ratios at the class level, the Cisco series router makes no distinction between interface types. At the class level, the default bandwidth-remaining ratio is 1. This command was implemented on the Cisco series router for the PRE3.
It was implemented on the Cisco series routers. Additional keywords and arguments were added to support ATM overhead accounting optional on the Cisco series router and the Cisco series router for the PRE3. This comand was modified. Support for the Cisco series routers was added. The additional keyword and arguments associated with ATM overhead accounting were also supported. Cisco Series Router The scheduler uses the ratio specified in the bandwidthremainingratio command to determine the amount of excess bandwidth unused by priority traffic to allocate to a class-level queue or a subinterface-level queue during periods of congestion.
The scheduler allocates the unused bandwidth relative to other queues or subinterfaces. The bandwidthremainingratio command cannot coexist with another bandwidth command in different traffic classes of the same policy map. For the PRE2, the bandwidthremainingratio command can coexist with another bandwidth command in the same class of a policy map. On the PRE3, the bandwidthremainingratio command cannot coexist with another bandwidthcommand in the same class. In a hierarchical policy map in which the parent policy has only the class-default class defined with a child queuing policy applied, the router accepts only the bandwidthremainingratio form of the bandwidth command in the class-default class.
The bandwidthremainingratio command cannot coexist with the priority command in the same class. All of the queues for which the bandwidthremainingratio command is not specified receive the platformspecified minimum bandwidth-remaining ratio.
The router determines the minimum committed information rate CIR based on the configuration. To enable ATM overhead accounting, use the account keyword and the subsequent keywords and arguments as documented in the Syntax Description table. Cisco Series Routers Thebandwidthremainingratio command is not supported on the Cisco series routers.
You can use the bandwidthremainingpercent command in place of the bandwidthremainingratiocommand on Cisco series routers to achieve the same functionality. During periods of congestion, the subinterface receives a share of excess bandwidth unused by priority traffic based on the bandwidth-remaining ratio of 10, relative to the other subinterfaces configured on the physical interface.
The following example shows how to configure bandwidth remaining ratios for individual class queues. Some of the classes configured have bandwidth guarantees and a bandwidth-remaining ratio explicitly specified. However, in the example, the Child policy does not define a class-default bandwidth remaining ratio. Description Specifies a bandwidth-remaining percentage for class-level or subinterface-level queues to be used during congestion to determine the amount of excess bandwidth unused by priority traffic to allocate to nonpriority queues.
Displays the configuration of all classes for a specified service policy map or all classes for all existing policy maps. To remove the explicit bumping rules for the VCs assigned to this class and return to the default condition of implicit bumping, use the nobumpexplicitcommandor the bumpimplicit command. To specify that the VC bundle members do not accept any bumped traffic, use the noform of thiscommand.
To configure the bumping rules for a specific VC or permanent virtual circuit PVC member of a bundle, use the bump command in bundle-vc or SVC-bundle-member configuration mode. To remove the explicit bumping rules for the VC or PVC bundle member and return to the default condition of implicit bumping, use the bumpimplicitcommand. To specify that the VC or PVC bundle member does not accept any bumped traffic, use the nobumptrafficcommand. Valid values for the precedence-level argument are numbers from 0 to 7.
The implicit bumping rule stipulates that bumped traffic is to be carried by a VC or PVC with a lower precedence level. This command was made available in SVC-bundlemember configuration mode. Use the bump command in VC-class configuration mode to configure a VC class that can be assigned to a bundle member. The effects of different bumping configuration approaches are as follows: Implicit bumping--If you configure implicit bumping, bumped traffic is sent to the VC or PVC configured to handle the next lower precedence level.
When the original VC or PVC that bumped the traffic comes back up, the traffic that it is configured to carry is restored to it. If no other positive forms of the bump command are configured, the bumpimplicitcommandtakes effect. You can specify only one precedence level for bumping. Reject bumping--To configure a discrete VC or PVC to reject bumped traffic when the traffic is directed to it, use the nobumptraffic command.
To avoid this occurrence, configure explicitly the bundle member VC or PVC that has the lowest precedence level. To use this command in VC-class configuration mode, you must enter the vc-classatm global configuration command before you enter this command. To use this command to configure an individual bundle member in bundle-VC configuration mode, first issue the bundle command to enter bundle configuration mode for the bundle to which you want to add or modify the VC member to be configured.
Then use the pvc-bundle command to specify the VC to be created or modified and enter bundle-vc configuration mode. This command has no effect if the VC class that contains the command is attached to a standalone VC; that is, if the VC is not a bundle member. In this case, the attributes are ignored by the VC. VCs in a VC bundle are subject to the following configuration inheritance guidelines listed in order of next-highest precedence : VC configuration in bundle-vc mode Bundle configuration in bundle mode with the effect of assigned VC-class configuration Subinterface configuration in subinterface mode.
The following example configures the class called five to define parameters applicable to a VC in a bundle. If the VC goes down, traffic will be directed bumped explicitly to a VC mapped with precedence level 7: vc-class atm five ubr precedence 5 bump explicit 7. The following example configures the class called premium-class to define parameters applicable to a VC in a bundle.
Unless overridden with a bundle-vc bump configuration, the VC that uses this class will not allow other traffic to be bumped onto it: vc-class atm premium-class no bump traffic bump explicit 7. Description Enters bundle configuration mode to create a bundle or modify an existing bundle. Adds a PVC to a bundle as a member of the bundle and enters bundle-vc configuration mode in order to configure that PVC bundle member.
Creates or modifies a member of an SVC bundle. To remove the specified bundle, use the noform of this command. From within bundle configuration mode you can configure the characteristics and attributes of the bundle and its members, such as the encapsulation type for all virtual circuits VCs in the bundle, the bundle. Attributes and parameters you configure in bundle configuration mode are applied to all VC members of the bundle.
VCs in a VC bundle are subject to the following configuration inheritance guidelines listed in order of next highest precedence : VC configuration in bundle-vc mode Bundle configuration in bundle mode Subinterface configuration in subinterface mode. To display status on bundles, use the showatmbundle and showatmbundlestatisticscommands. The following example shows how to configure a bundle called bundle1.
Description Configures a VC bundle with the bundle-level commands contained in the specified VC class. Displays the bundle attributes assigned to each bundle VC member and the current working status of the VC members. Displays statistics on the specified bundle. Unique bundle name that identifies the SVC bundle in the router. The bundle names at each end of the virtual circuit VC must be the same. Length limit is 16 alphanumeric characters. This command causes the system to enter SVC-bundle configuration mode.
The bundle name must be the same on both sides of the VC. From SVC-bundle configuration mode, you can configure the characteristics and attributes of the bundle and its members, such as the encapsulation type for all virtual circuits VCs in the bundle, the bundle management parameters, the service type, and so on. Attributes and parameters you configure in SVCbundle configuration mode are applied to all VC members of the bundle. VCs in a VC bundle are subject to the following configuration inheritance guidelines listed in order of next-highest precedence :.
VC configuration in bundle-VC mode Bundle configuration in bundle mode Subinterface configuration in subinterface mode. To display the status of bundles, use the showatmbundlesvc and showatmbundlesvcstatisticscommands. To delete an existing class map, use the noform of this command. Name of the class map. This command was implemented on the following platforms: Cisco series, Cisco series, and Cisco series routers. Before you use the class EtherSwitch command, use the policy-map global configuration command to identify the policy map and to enter policy-map configuration mode.
After you specify a policy map, you can configure a policy for new classes or modify a policy for any existing classes in that policy map. You attach the policy map to an interface by using the service-policyinterface configuration command; however, you cannot attach one that uses an ACL classification to the egress direction. The class name that you specify in the policy map ties the characteristics for that class to the class map and its match criteria as configured by using the class-map global configuration command.
The class EtherSwitch command performs the same function as theclass-mapglobal configuration command. Use the class EtherSwitch command when a new classification, which is not shared with any other ports, is needed. Use the class-map command when the map is shared among many ports. In a policy map, the class named class-default is not supported. The Ethernet switch network module does not filter traffic on the basis of the policy map defined by the classclass-default policy-map configuration command.
After entering the class EtherSwitch command, you enter policy-map class configuration mode. When you are in this mode, these configuration commands are available: default --Sets a command to its default. The policer specifies the bandwidth limitations and the action to take when the limits are exceeded.
For more information, see the police command. To return to policy-map configuration mode, use the exit command. To return to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command. The following example shows how to create a policy map named policy1. When attached to the ingress port, it matches all the incoming traffic defined in class1 and polices the traffic at an average rate of 1 Mbps and bursts at bytes.
Traffic exceeding the profile is dropped. Router config policy-map policy1 Router config-pmap class class1 Router config-pmap-c police exceed-action drop Router config-pmap-c exit. Description Creates a class map to be used for matching packets to the class whose name you specify.
Defines the match criteria to classify traffic. Configures traffic policing. Description Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to multiple interfaces to specify a service policy. Displays QoS policy maps. To remove a class from the policy map, use the no form of this command. Name of the class to be configured or whose policy is to be modified. The class name is used for both the class map and to configure a policy for the class in the policy map. Specifies the default class so that you can configure or modify its policy. Optional Specifies the default traffic class as a fragment, and names the fragment traffic class.
Optional Adds a class map between any two existing class maps. Inserting a new class map between two existing class map provides more flexibility when modifying existing policy map configurations. Without this option, the class map is appended to the end of the policy map. This keyword is supported only on flexible packet matching FPM policies. Optional Specifies that the class is classifying a collection of fragments. The fragments being classified by this class must all share the same fragment-class-name.
Support for this command was introduced on Cisco routers. The class-default keyword was added to the Cisco router. Theinsert-beforeclass-name option was added. This command was introduced on the PRE3 for the Cisco series router. This command was implemented on Cisco ASR series routers. The fragmentfragment-classname and service-fragmentfragment-class-name options were introduced. Policy Map Configuration Mode Within a policy map, the class policy-map command can be used to specify the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change.
First, the policy map must be identified. To identify the policy map and enter the required policy-map configuration mode , use the policy-map command before you use the class policy-map command. After you specify a policy map, you can configure policy for new classes or modify the policy for any existing classes in that policy map. Class Characteristics The class name that you specify in the policy map ties the characteristics for that class--that is, its policy--to the class map and its match criteria, as configured using the class-map command. When you configure policy for a class and specify its bandwidth and attach the policy map to an interface, class-based weighted fair queueing CBWFQ determines if the bandwidth requirement of the class can be satisfied.
When a class is removed, available bandwidth for the interface is incremented by the amount previously allocated to the class. The maximum number of classes that you can configure for a router--and, therefore, within a policy map-is Predefined Default Class The class-default keyword is used to specify the predefined default class called class-default.
The classdefault class is the class to which traffic is directed if that traffic does not match any of the match criteria in the configured class maps. When using either tail drop or WRED, note the following points: The queue-limit and random-detect commands cannot be used in the same class policy, but they can be used in two class policies in the same policy map. You can configure the bandwidth command when either the queue-limit command or the randomdetect command is configured in a class policy.
The bandwidth command specifies the amount of bandwidth allocated for the class. For the predefined default class, you can configure the fair-queue class-default command. The fairqueue command specifies the number of dynamic queues for the default class. The fair-queue command can be used in the same class policy as either the queue-limit command or the randomdetect command. It cannot be used with the bandwidth command.
Fragments A default traffic class is marked as a fragment within a policy map class statement using the fragmentkeyword. Multiple fragments can then be classified collectively in a separate policy map that is created using the service-fragment keyword. When fragments are used, default traffic classes marked as fragments have QoS applied separately from the non-default traffic classes. When using fragments, note the following guidelines: Only default traffic classes can be marked as fragments. Thefragmentfragment-class-nameoption within a default class statement marks that default class as a fragment.
Theservice-fragmentfragment-class-nameoption when defining a class in a policy map is used to specify a class of traffic within the Modular QoS CLI that contains all fragments sharing the same fragment-class-name. Fragments can only be used within the same physical interface. Policy maps with fragments sharing the same fragment-class-name on different interfaces cannot be classified collectively using a class with the service-fragmentfragment-class-name option.
In a policy map, the PRE3 allows you to configure one priority level 1 queue, plus one priority level 2 queue, plus 12 class queues, plus one default queue. The maximum number of classes that you can configure for a Cisco ASR Series Router--and, therefore, within a policy map--is 8. The following example shows how to configure three class policies included in the policy map called policy1.
Class1 specifies policy for traffic that matches access control list Class2 specifies policy for traffic on interface ethernet The third class is the default class to which packets that do not satisfy configured match criteria are directed:! The following commands create class-maps class1 and class2! The following commands create the policy map, which is defined to contain policy! ClassA minimum of kbps of bandwidth is expected to be delivered to this class in the event of congestion, and the queue reserved for this class can enqueue 40 packets before tail drop is enacted to handle additional packets.
ClassA minimum of kbps of bandwidth is expected to be delivered to this class in the event of congestion, and a weight factor of 10 is used to calculate the average queue size. For congestion avoidance, WRED packet drop is used, not tail drop. The default class dynamic queues are reserved for traffic that does not meet the match criteria of other classes whose policy is defined by the policy map called policy1, and a maximum of 20 packets per queue is enqueued before tail drop is enacted to handle additional packets. When the policy map that contains these classes is attached to the interface to stipulate the service policy for that interface, available bandwidth is assessed, taking into account all class policies and Resource Reservation Protocol RSVP , if configured.
The following example shows how to configure policy for the default class included in the policy map called policy8. The default class has these characteristics dynamic queues are available for traffic that does not meet the match criteria of other classes whose policy is defined by the policy map called policy8, and a weight factor of 14 is used to calculate the average queue size. For congestion avoidance, WRED packet drop is used, not tail drop: Router config policy-map policy8 Router config-pmap class class-default Router config-pmap-c fair-queue 20 Router config-pmap-c random-detect exponential-weighting-constant The following example shows how to configure policy for a class called acl included in the policy map called policy1.
Class acl has these characteristics:a minimum of kbps of bandwidth is expected to be delivered to this class in the event of congestion, and the queue reserved for this class can enqueue Note that when the policy map that contains this class is attached to the interface to stipulate the service policy for that interface, available bandwidth is assessed, taking into account all class policies and RSVP, if configured: Router config policy-map policy1 Router config-pmap class acl Router config-pmap-c bandwidth Router config-pmap-c queue-limit The following example shows how to configure policy for a class called int included in the policy map called policy8.
Class int has these characteristics:a minimum of kbps of bandwidth are expected to be delivered to this class in the event of congestion, and a weight factor of 10 is used to calculate the average queue size. Note that when the policy map that contains this class is attached to the interface to stipulate the service policy for that interface, available bandwidth is assessed: Router config policy-map policy8 Router config-pmap class int Router config-pmap-c bandwidth Router config-pmap-c random-detect exponential-weighting-constant The following example shows how to configure policy for the class-default default class included in the policy map called policy1.
The class-default default class has these characteristics hashed queues for traffic that does not meet the match criteria of other classes whose policy is defined by the policy map called policy1; and a maximum of 20 packets per queue before tail drop is enacted to handle additional enqueued packets: Router config policy-map policy1 Router config-pmap class class-default Router config-pmap-c fair-queue Router config-pmap-c queue-limit The following example shows how to configure policy for the class-default default class included in the policy map called policy8.
The class-default default class has these characteristics hashed queues for traffic that does not meet the match criteria of other classes whose policy is defined by the policy map called policy8; and a weight factor of 14 is used to calculate the average queue size. The following example shows how to configure FPM for blaster packets. The class map contains the following match criteria: TCP port , or UDP port 69; and pattern 0x at 3 bytes from start of IP header: load protocol disk2:ip.
The following example shows how to create a fragment class of traffic to classify the default traffic class named BestEffort. All default traffic from the policy maps named subscriber1 and subscriber2 is part of the fragment default traffic class named BestEffort. This default traffic is then shaped collectively by creating a class called data that uses the service-fragment keyword and the shape command: Note the following about this example: The class-name for each fragment default traffic class is BestEffort.
Theclass-name of BestEffort is also used to define the class where theservice-fragmentkeyword is entered. This class applies a shaping policy to all traffic forwarded using the fragment default traffic classes named BestEffort. Description Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map. Specifies the number of dynamic queues to be reserved for use by the class-default class as part of the default class policy. To disable this functionality, use the no form of the command. The following example shows how to create an ARP class-map: Router config class-map arp-peruser Router config-cmap match protocol arp Router config-cmap match subscriber access.
Description Matches ARP traffic to a policy map. Matches subscriber access traffic to a policy map. To remove the VC class parameters from a VC bundle, use the no form of this command. This command was made available in SVC-bundle configuration mode. To use this command, you must first enter the bundle or bundlesvccommand to create the bundle and enter bundle or SVC-bundle configuration mode. Parameters set through bundle-level commands that are contained in a VC class are applied to the bundle and its VC members.
You can add the following commands to a VC class to be used to configure a VC bundle: broadcast, encapsulation, inarp,oam-bundle, oamretry, and protocol. Bundle-level parameters applied through commands that are configured directly on a bundle supersede bundle-level parameters applied through a VC class by the class-bundle command.
Some bundle-level parameters applied through a VC class or directly to the bundle can be superseded by commands that you directly apply to individual VCs in bundle-VC configuration mode. In the following example, a class called class1 is created and then applied to the bundle called bundle1:! The following commands create the class class1: vc-class atm class1 encapsulation aal5snap broadcast protocol ip inarp oam-bundle manage 3 oam 4 3 10!
The following commands apply class1 to the bundle called bundle1: bundle bundle1 class-bundle class1. Creates a bundle or modifies an existing bundle to enter bundle configuration mode. Sets the encapsulation method used by the interface. To remove an existing class map from a device, use the no form of this command. Optional Specifies the class-map type. Optional Enables the flexible packet matching FPM functionality to determine the protocol stack to examine.
When you use the load protocol command to load protocol header description files PHDFs on the device, a stack of protocol headers can be defined so that the filter can determine which headers are present and in what order. Optional Determines the pattern to look for in the configured protocol stack.
Note You must specify a stack class map by. When this keyword is enabled, the command filters the traffic that is destined to specific ports on the control-plane host subinterface. Optional Enables queue thresholding, which limits the total number of packets for a specified protocol allowed in the control plane IP input queue. The queue-thresholding applies only to the control-plane host subinterface.
Optional Enables the logging of packet traffic on the control plane. The value for the log-class argument is the name of the log class. Optional Determines how packets are evaluated when multiple match criteria exist. Matches statements under this class map based on the logical AND function. A packet must match all statements to be accepted. If you do not specify the match-all or match-any keyword, the default keyword used is match-all. Matches statements under this class map based on the logical OR function. A packet must match any of the match statements to be accepted.
If you do not specify the match-any or match-all keyword, the default keyword is used match-all. Name of the class for the class map. Note You can enter the value for the class-map-. The software does not accept spaces in a class map name entered without quotation marks. The stack and access-control keywords were added to support FPM. The port-filter and queue-threshold keywords were added to support control-plane protection.
The logging logclass keyword and argument pair was added to support control-plane packet logging. Cisco , , , , , , , and ASR Series Routers Use the class-map command to specify the class that you will create or modify to meet the class-map match criteria. This command enters QoS class-map configuration mode in which you can enter one or more match commands to configure the match criteria for this class. Packets that arrive at either the input interface or the output interface determined by how the service-policy command is configured are checked against the match criteria that are configured for a class map to determine if packets belong to that class.
When configuring a class map, you can use one or more match commands to specify the match criteria. For example, you can use the match access-group command, the match protocol command, or the match input-interface command. The match commands vary according to the Cisco software release. Cisco Series Routers Apply the class-map command and commands available in QoS class-map configuration mode on a perinterface basis to define packet classification, marking, aggregating, and flow policing as part of a globally named service policy. You can attach a service policy to an EtherChannel.
Do not attach a service policy to a port that is a member of an EtherChannel. When a device is in QoS class-map configuration mode, the following configuration commands are available: descriptionSpecifies the description for a class-map configuration. If you enter these commands, PFC QoS does not detect unsupported keywords until you attach a policy map to an interface.
When you try to attach the policy map to an interface, an error message is generated. After configuring the class-map name and the device you can enter the match access-group and match ip dscp commands in QoS class-map configuration mode. Table 1 match command Syntax Description. Description Optional Specifies the access list index or access list names. Valid access list index values are from 1 to Optional Specifies the named access list. Valid values are from 0 to You can enter up to eight DSCP values separated by spaces.
Optional Specifies the IP precedence values to match. Valid values are from 0 to 7. You can enter up to eight precedence values separated by spaces.
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The following example shows how to specify class as the name of a class and define a class map for this class. The class named class specifies policy for the traffic that matches ACL Device config class-map class Device config-cmap match access-group Device config-cmap end. The match criteria defined within class maps are for slammer and UDP packets with an IP length that does not exceed 0x bytes, UDP port 0x59A , and pattern 0x at bytes from the start of the IP header.
Device config load protocol disk2:ip. Device config-cmap Device config-cmap Device config-cmap Device config-cmap Device config-cmap. The following example shows how to configure a port-filter policy to drop all traffic that is destined to closed or nonlistened ports except Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP : Device config class-map type port-filter pf-class Device config-cmap match not port udp Device config-cmap match closed-ports Device config-cmap exit Device config policy-map type port-filter pf-policy Device config-pmap class pf-class Device config-pmap-c drop Device config-pmap-c end.
The following example shows how to configure a class map named ipp5 and enter a match statement for IP precedence 5: Device config class-map ipp5 Device config-cmap match ip precedence 5. Setting Up a Class Map Inside an Description Specifies the description for a class map or policy map configuration. Configures the traffic class to discard packets belonging to a specific class map.
Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create or change, and the default class before you configure its policy. Command load protocol match class-map match access-group match input-interface match ip dscp match mpls experimental match protocol policy-map. Configures the match criteria for a class map on the basis of port filter or protocol queue policies.
Configures the match criteria for a class map on the basis of the specified ACL. Configures a class map to use the specified input interface as a match criterion. Configures a class map to use the specified EXP field value as a match criterion. Configures the match criteria for a class map on the basis of the specified protocol. Configures a timer and authentication method for a control interface. Associates a QoS group value for a class map. Attaches a policy map to an input interface or VC or to an output interface or VC to be used as the service policy for that interface or VC.
Displays class map information. Displays statistics and configurations of input and output policies that are attached to an interface. Configures the source-address control on a port. To disable, use the no form of the command. The following example shows creating an ARP class-map: Router config class-map arp-peruser Router config-cmap match protocol arp Router config-cmap match subscriber access. To disassociate the command, use the no form of this command.
Note Inserting a new class map between two. If this command is used and the class is not configured, an error is generated. If the class needs to be inserted before a specific class map, the insert-before keyword can be used. The insert-before keyword is typically needed if the administrator is configuring any per-host class maps and would like it inserted before a specific class map. The classtypetag command creates the policy-map class configuration mode.
There can be multiple classes under the policy map. Description Creates or modifies a policy map that can be attached to one or more interfaces to specify a service policy. Optional Clears counters for all control-plane features. Optional Clears counters for all features on the control-plane aggregate path.
Optional Clears counters for all features on the control-plane host feature path. Optional Clears counters for all features on the control-plane transit feature path. Optional Clears counters for all features on the control-plane CEF-exception feature path. Use the clearcontrol-plane command to clear counters for all features on the control-plane interfaces or subinterfaces. The following example clears the counters for all features on the control-plane host feature path. Router clear control-plane host.
Description Enters control-plane configuration mode, which allows you to associate or modify attributes or parameters that are associated with the control plane of the device.